The Long and the Short of It: Development of Welsh Law



The Text


Much work has been done in recent years on the manuscripts which contain a 'tail' of additional material. The aim of the present work is to bring together the latest research on the tails and the additional material: the contents of the tails, the nature of the additional material, comparative work, and studies of the way this material was incorporated in the manuscripts. To a great extent this is also a study of the development of Welsh law in the period following the conquest of Wales in 1282. In addition to the interpretative work on this material and the manuscripts, there is a research project to produce editions of the relevant sections. The editions will appear as a volume, and it will also be available on this website.

In terms of the additional material, several important studies have already been completed, and they are presented here.

Studies of Manuscripts Containing Additional Material


Elias, G. A., ‘Golygiad Ac Astudiaeth Destunol o’r Llyfr Cyfraith In LlGC, Llawysgrif Peniarth 164 (H), Ynghyd a’r Copiau Ohoni Yn Llawysgrifau Peniarth 278 a Llanstephan 121’, (PhD, Bangor University, 2007).

Elias, G. A., ‘Llawysgrif Peniarth 164 a Pharhad Cyfraith Hywel yn yr Oesoedd Canol Diweddar’, Llên Cymru 33 (2010), 32–50.

Elias, G. A., Yr Ail Lyfr Du o'r Waun (Texts and Studies in Medieval Welsh Law, 2015).

James, C., ‘Golygiad o BL Add. 22,356 o Gyfraith Hywel Ynghyd Ag Astudiaeth Gymharol Ohono â Llanstephan 116’, (PhD, Aberystwyth University, 1984).

James, C., ‘Llyfr Cyfraith o Ddyffryn Teifi: Disgrifiad o BL. Add. 22,356’, National Library of Wales Journal 27 (1991), 383–404.

James, C., ‘Ysgrifydd Anhysbys: Proffil Personol’, Ysgrifau Beirniadol 23 (1997), 44–72.

James, C., Machlud Cyfraith Hywel - Golygiad o BL Add 22356 (Texts and Studies in Medieval Welsh Law, Cambridge, 2013).

Roberts, S. E., ‘Creu Trefn o Anhrefn: Gwaith copïydd Testun Cyfreithiol’, National Library of Wales Journal 32 (2002), 397–420.

Roberts, S. E., Llawysgrif Pomffred: An Edition and Study of Peniarth MS 259B (Leiden, 2011).

Roberts, S. E., ‘Cyfraith, carchar a chastell: hynt a hanes llawysgrif gyfreithiol’ Transactions of the Honourable Society of the Cymmrodorion, (2013), 24-40.

General Studies on Additional Material


James, C., ‘Tradition and Innovation in some Later Medieval Welsh Lawbooks’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 40 (1993), 148–56.

James, C., ‘Parhad, Pragmatiaeth, Propaganda: Llawysgrifau Cyfraith Hywel yn yr Oesoedd Canol Diweddar’, Cof Cenedl 22 (2007), 33–67.

Roberts, S. E., ‘Law Texts and their Sources in Medieval Wales: The Case of H and Tails of Other Legal Manuscripts’, Welsh History Review 24 (2008), 41–59.

Wiliam, A. Rh., 'Y Deddfgronau Cymraeg', National Library of Wales Journal 8 (1953), 97–103.

Studies on Genres of Additional Material


Charles-Edwards, T. M., ‘The Seven Bishop-Houses of Dyfed’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 24 (1970–72), 247–62.

Charles-Edwards, T. M., ‘Nau Kynywedi Teithiauc’, in The Welsh Law of Women (Cardiff, 1980), 23–39.

Charles-Edwards, T. M., ‘Cynghawsedd: Counting and Pleading in Medieval Welsh Law’, Bwletin y Bwrdd Gwybodau Celtaidd 33 (1986), 188–98.

Elias, G. A., ‘Llyfr Cynog of Cyfraith Hywel and St Cynog of Brycheiniog’, Welsh History Review 23 (2006), 27–47.

Elias, G. A., Llyfr Cynyr Ap Cadwgan’ (Pamffledi Cyfraith Hywel, Aberystwyth, 2006). A copy can be bought here.

James, C., ‘Ban Wedy i Dynny: Medieval Welsh Law and Early Protestant Propaganda’, Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 27 (1994), 61–86.

Jenkins, D., (gol.), Damweiniau Colan (Aberystwyth, 1973).

Pryce, H., ‘Early Irish Canons and Medieval Welsh Law’, Peritia 5 (1986), 107–27.

Roberts, S. E., 'Plaints in Mediaeval Welsh Law', Journal of Celtic Studies 4 (2004), 219–61.

Roberts, S. E., ‘Emerging from the Bushes: The Welsh Law of Women and the Legal Triads’, in J. F. Eska (ed.), Law, Literature and Society: CSANA Yearbook 7 (Dublin, 2008), 58–76.

Roberts, S. E., 'More plaints in medieval Welsh law', Studia Celtica 48 (2014), 171-199.

Stacey, R. C., ‘Speaking in Riddles’, in P. Ní Chatháin and M. Richter (eds.), Ireland and Europe in the Early Middle Ages: Texts and Transmission/Irland und Europa im fruheren Mittelalter:Texte und Uberlieferung (Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2002), 243–48.

Stacey, R. C., ‘Learning to Plead in Medieval Welsh Law’, Studia Celtica 38 (2004), 107–24.

Stacey, R. C., ‘Instructional Riddles in Welsh Law’, in L. Jones and J. F. Nagy (eds.), Heroic Poets and Poetic Heroes: A Festschrift for Patrick K. Ford (Dublin, 2004), 336–43.

Stacey, R. C., ‘Legal Writing in Medieval Wales: Damweiniau I' in T. M. Charles-Edwards and R. J. W. Evans (eds.), Wales and the Wider World: Welsh History in an International Context (Oxford, 2011), 57–85.

Wiliam, A. Rh., ‘Restoration of the Book of Cynog’, National Library of Wales Journal 25 (1988), 245–56.

Wiliam, A. Rh., ‘Llyfr Cynghawsedd’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 35 (1988), 73–85.

Wiliam, A. Rh., (gol.), Llyfr Cynog, Pamffledi Cyfraith Hywel (Aberystwyth, 1990). A copy can be bought here.




Website design and hosting: Technoleg Taliesin Cyf.

Administration